Let’s try to understand the first object of Paticca Samuppada which we all well known as Avijja / Avidya / Ignorance.
What is Ignorance?
In the explanation of Paticca Samuppada the topic Ignorance got priority. The topic has been discussed in many ways which really gives the better explanations.
“Tatta Katama Avijja? (What is Ignorance?) – Dukke Annanag (lack of knowledge about Suffering), Dukka Samudaye Annanag (lack of knowledge about Cause of Suffering), Dukka Nirodha Annanag (lack of knowledge about cease of suffering is possible), Dukka Nirodha Gaminiya Patipadaya Annanag (lack of knowledge about the path which cease suffering) – Ayang uccati Avijja (That what ignorance is)”
In another way this says Unawareness about Four Noble Truths what Ignorance is! But this is not enough to understand the Ignorance clearly.
We should first learn what Ignorance is! There is a Science in this world. To learn about the worldly things how they create… how they react… how they constructed and how we can get benefits out of things… etc… is what worldly Science is. But the Science which Lord Samma Sambuddha has shown is deeper than this worldly Science. When something exists in this world first of all we should see world through that thing. When we learn about sufferings we should first see where suffering is. Dharma says “The World exists INSIDE Suffering”. As I always see we should see through our own mind to understand the Dharma. When we able to see the truth as it is we found Science. And we get rid of Ignorance which is nescience.
World is building many consents. And they say everything is for in search of Happiness. Everyone try to do the best for their own happiness. But why are you running after this world? Have you identified the WORLD? Did you ever try to think what is this WORLD is? First let’s try to understand what this world is. There are many explanations available in Dharma about the world… some describe this as coalescent… some says as substance… some says as organizations etc… etc… but let’s get the easiest clarification for a better understanding. Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind & Forms, Sounds, Fragrances, Tastes, Touch and Thoughts are the World. Can you see that we can’t define a World except these 12 objects? Think and understand that we can’t find World apart from these 12 objects. Because WORLD is these 12 things!
Then what is the reality? What is the illusion?
When the truth is hidden behind the illusion and not visible for us... aren’t we cheated by an illusion? And we think as the reality actually is NOT the reality but an ILLUSION. When someone say world is suffering no one will able to understand at the first time. Cause it is hidden behind the affection. All these Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind & Forms, Sounds, Fragrances, Tastes, Touch and Thoughts are hidden by the Desire and its affection. So that makes us NOT to see the suffering at first sight. The Vision which says there is no suffering keep occupies us in this race after comfort. That is why Dharma said we are going after the Suffering by thinking that is the Comfort! We can’t see this truth because we never try to find out the truth… and also we never spare few minute to think… if we think openly these things are visible and not too far away for understanding. So how we can get rid of this illusion? We should find out that why Dharma is mentioning that this is suffering. Dharma says Eyes & Forms are suffering, Ears & Sounds are suffering, Tongue & Taste are suffering, Nose & Fragrance are suffering, Body & Touch suffering, Mind & Thoughts suffering but WHY? There should be a Reason to say so. So let’s try to understand it.
“Yangpiccang Nalabati Tampi Dukkang (if we can’t get what we want as the way we want that is suffering)”
So, now think… Are these Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind & Forms, Sounds, Fragrances, Tastes, Touch and Thoughts available in the way you want? We try to keep our Eyes the way we want… we like it to keep in a pleasant way… but NOT POSSIBLE! Do we like to when bad things happen to them? But, NOT POSSIBLE to protect them as always bad things are coming to them! How about FORMS? Can you keep them the way you want? Can you always make them pleasant and attractive? Can you find forms always which are attractive? How many times you have to come across the forms you don’t like to see? But do really form care about what we want? No matter how we like it or not they are there. So what is the theory then… “NOTHING AVAILALE AS THE WAY WE WANT” which mentioned in Dharma “NOTHING IS ICCA”. Eyes are not the way we want, Ears are not the way we want, Nose is not the way we want, Tongue is not the way we want, Body is not the way we want, Mind is not the way we want & Forms are not the way we want, Sounds are not the way we want, Fragrances are not the way we want, Tastes are not the way we want, Touch are not the way we want and Thoughts are not the way we want! So these Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind & Forms, Sounds, Fragrances, Tastes, Touch and Thoughts is the WORLD and now it simply says the ENTIRE WORLD IS NOT THE WAY WE WANT!
What you feel when something is NOT THE WAY YOU WANT? Don’t you feel sad? So that tells when things happening out of your control you don’t get the things always the way you want… no matter how far you DON’T LIKE them the things you don’t like also happening. You can’t keep things you like the way you want… and also you can’t stop things coming which you don’t like…!! Both ways make you feel sad… THINGS WE LIKE BRING SUFFERING… also THE THINGS WE DON’T LIKE BRING SUFFERING! Which one brings the sufferings most? THINGS YOU LIKE! Think for a moment… when someone die whom very closer to you… don’t you feel suffering a lot than a person whom unknown to you die? When someone very dear to you is in trouble don’t you feel suffering a lot than a person whom you don’t care much? When there is an enemy we like when he get troubles…. But if the enemy doing better we feel sad… we like to see bad things happening to that person also… or else we don’t like to see bad things happening to people whom very dear & closer to us. Through these explanations I believe now you understood who gives you more sufferings. Those who very dear & closer to us brings the highest sufferings!
When things happening against our wish we try to fight back… we compete… we struggle… we try our best to protect. But we can’t succeed! Things are facing to the reality of weaken… decay… destruction… and also brings the suffering for us. We expected comfort and things cheated us by showing that we can have that comfort and we end up with sufferings! This is the reality and you will understand this when you think openly and clearly!
Attractive forms are there and we feel like keep watching but we don’t get the chance for that… & we feel suffering.
Attractive sounds are there and we feel like keep listening but we don’t get the chance for that … & we feel suffering.
Attractive fragrances are there and we feel like keep feel it but we don’t get the chance for that… & we feel sufferings.
Tasty tastes are there and we feel like keep tasting them but we don’t get the chance for that… & we feel sufferings.
Pleasant contacts are there and we feel like keep touching them to comfort us but we don’t get the chance for that… & we feel sufferings.
Attractive pleasant thoughts are there and we feel like keep thinking but we don’t get the chance for that… & we feel sufferings.
Likewise Forms, Sounds, Tastes, Fragrances, Contacts, Thoughts are not the way we expect we want to go against them. We suffer… we suffer… but we can’t stop… So don’t you feel like DESTITUTE? We are destitute like nothing… cause we get suffering through comfort… we get suffering through discomfort… and we can’t do anything against to stop them and make them the way we want…. We Are Truly HELPLESS & DESTITUTE!
World was like that… World is like that… World will be like that. So even we expect something yesterday we get the same suffering which we gain today… and for tomorrow also. We experience this nature each minute we passing in this very same moment. And it is really useless to expect something better when the nature is like this from past and be always. So think through your own mind and get the understanding that when things happening which are not the way we want we can’t expect comfort on that process. We can’t keep hopes on such a nature. So think… think… think… realize the reality through thinking… I realize this and now I’m going a successful journey to my freedom… I am sure that same thinking will guide you to the best for your own self too. You will soon realize that in this world there is not a tiny space which we can protect as I or mine… not even a tiny space which comfort is exists. So you will understand by yourself that all these time you ran after a useless hallucination!
In this consent people agree with many things and says world is comfortable… it is good… and we should do like this… we should do like that… etc… BUT WHY? Cause they never try to think and realize this simple truth. WHY THEY NEVER TRY? Because they think the COMFORT is exist somewhere in this world.
Those who don’t have money think they can gain comfort when they earn money. Those who don’t have a job think they can gain comfort when they gain a job. Those who don’t marry thinks they will find comfort when they marry… those who have children thinks they will be comfortable if they have kids. Etc… etc… people have such a load of hopes to gain comfort and they just running after them without even concerning how much they have put effort? They can’t see how they tired… how they suffering? Cause they are after comfort which really is not existing… even they fulfill their goals they will not find comfort and they see another goal which they will find comfort and again running after that to achieve… never end… keep continue and the very same hope keep continue the same thing and we never know when we die… when we born… the life circle… !!!
Lord Samma Sambuddha said “if there is tiny piece of COMFORT available in this existence I don’t have to show you Nirvana. A Samma Sambuddha is not really necessary for this universe then. Also a path of Nirvana is also not necessary… if COMFORT is available I’ll guide everyone including me to that place instead of Nirvana. If that COMFORT is available a person will never wish to become a Lord Samma Sambuddha to realize the truth and explain it to the others. He said I found Nirvana is where true comfort exists. THAT IS PEACEFUL AND THAT IS BLISSFUL. If I say where COMFORT is I say NIRVANA is comfort. So I recommend that for you too!”
So people don’t even try to understand what this says… they keep running after Comfort… it like finding dog feces which not stink! Will you be able to find? The answer is with you!
We can’t blame anyone as this race creates by our own selves as a result of unawareness! Here we found the Cause for stress also. Don’t you? When we stuck in this race ten out of one from what we earn is not enough for the living. And the balance nine out of ten will bring the stress to us. Money is not enough… what we earn is not enough… economy crisis… etc… etc… and when the stress is high trying to get a help from alcohol or something which loose the realizations. We couldn’t realize this truth with the normal consciousness and how we able to find it with the unconsciousness? If marriage doesn’t work well people think it’s a problem with husband or wife and try to find a better one… but will you be able to find one till you realize the truth? Likewise everyone going behind a comfort which really doesn’t exists. There are six main objects which we use to find comfort. Five out of six cause to the sixth one. Those are Attractive Forms, Attractive Sounds, Attractive Fragrance, Attractive Taste, Attractive Feelings and these five bases to create the sixth one which is Attractive Thoughts and these things struggle in the mind and make a menace inside the mind.
Through this understanding we realize that we keep trying to drag things which are burning and make us burn too. When you understand what above mentioned Dharma is you will realize that we are keep trying to do something really not possible. When you realize that you understood the basic principle. Then you realize all these time you have been so ignorant to follow something ignorance and now you found the knowledge too. Also this is the reason to tell that this dharma should understand by one’s own knowledge no one can teach this. It the basic theory one can teach whom already understood this. But the realization should arise in your own mind with the great understanding. We all know in mathematics we get the theory and we should apply the theories to solve the puzzles. When we are aware of the theory with a high understanding the puzzles are not big deals to solve. Likewise to understand the Dharma we should know how to clear the theories. When we understand these facts like this we happen to realize what Ignorance really is.
And also we should understand that all these EYE, EARS, NOSE, TONGUE, BODY, MIND, FORMS, SOUNDS, FRAGRANCE, TASTES, FEELINGS, THOUGHTS are not happen to this universe so suddenly. They are effect of a long process which causes them to bring that effect by our own selves. And Ignorance created a high power to give those effects to this universe. As we live in such an ignorant nature we can’t live without the support of each other. All these are to understand by your own wisdom. All what you have to realize is an ignorant process is coming from past to present and will going on to the future but that did NOT create any comfort and don’t create now and will NOT create in future too. There is no reason to create a comfort in this existence. Without a Cause the Effect will not be there. Whatever produced & produce & will produce will be arrest to the law of changing and destroying. No matter how valuable they are they will under this nature. And no one can keep the things in the way they want.
When millions of beings burning with the defeated mind one will succeed to win the race… but as you see the winner too loses at the end with nothing. So all these are games played by Ignorance. Everything happens to born have to die one day. Everyone have to face that reality which is the natural effect. We are able to agree with those things patiently. If we put those natural things we gain suffering as 1%... the balance 99% of suffering are results of Ignorance process which we run after continuously. What we truly trying to gain through this effort? STRESS!! UNCOMFORT!!!
We can end this 99% suffering in this life itself. When we don’t attach, when we free, when we get rid of the Ignorant process we find that 99% sufferings are not anymore with us. Then we realize that cause to suffering also vanished and we won’t gain those 99% sufferings again. We should understand attachment to the world is not suitable for us and what suitable is non attachment to the world.
So, all this time we didn’t get the sharp knowledge to understand this truth. That is why Ignorance exists.
When we see the deathly trap of illusion we get rid of the “Dukke Annanag which is lack of knowledge about Suffering and we able to gain knowledge about suffering which call “Dukke Nanag”.
When we able to understand that running after those illusions cause to Suffering we get rid of the “Dukka Samudaye Annanag which is lack of knowledge about Cause of Suffering and we able to gain knowledge about Cause of Suffering which call “Dukke Samudaye Nanang”.
When we able to understand that stop running after that illusion and when we not attach to the world we can cease Suffering we get rid of the “Dukka Nirodha Annanag which is lack of knowledge about cease of suffering is possible and we gain “Dukke Nirodha Nanang” which is knowledge about cease of Suffering.
So what is the path for cease the sufferings? We able to understand the path is understanding the truth through our own knowledge by thinking through our own mind and not what others believe through their visions. When we understand the reality through our own mind we able to follow the most suitable path to cease the Sufferings. When we get that realization we able to get rid of the “Dukka Nirodha Gaminiya Patipadaya Annanag” which is lack of knowledge about the path that cease suffering and we able to gain “Dukke Nirodha Gaminiya Patipadaya Nanang” which is knowledge about the path that cease suffering.
So gaining these 4 awareness which are
Knowledge about suffering
Knowledge about Cause of Suffering
Knowledge about cease of Suffering
Knowledge about the path that cease suffering is the correct vision which we call as Samma Ditti.
To gain that Samma Ditti ( Correct Vision) we should realize the world as “Not the way we want which is Anicca” and “Suffering which is Dukkha” and “as things are not the way we want and brings sufferings all the way are Destitute things which are not suitable to attach that call Anatta”. Simply what we understand here is the “Trilakshana” the three main qualities of the existence which says Anicca, Dukka, Anatta. So now you realize only reading books and studying bunch of sootta or stanza will not help you to understand the reality. Study the world and existence through what you read & listen and get the perfect picture through your own mind by thinking openly. Understand that this is not just a piece of Dharma that this is the ETERNAL TRUTH!!!
Likewise when you understand what ignorance is and when you get rid of the ignorance with understanding you end the next step which says “Avijja paccaya Sankara (Ignorance cause to Sankara). And the Paticca Samuppada chains ends. Then applied the “Avijjayattewa asesa virago nirodo Sankara niroda - Ending Avijja cause to end Sankara” theory and you are free.
I mentioned in the introduction to Cause & Effect article that Avidya / Avijja / Ignorance got many explanations. Cause you already know the reason that how important to understand this Ignorance clearly for us.
Now you know the first explanation to “What is Ignorance?” which is lack of knowledge about Suffering, lack of knowledge about Cause of Suffering, lack of knowledge about cease of suffering is possible, lack of knowledge about the path which ceases suffering! That is what we read above.
The next explanation is going to describe how Ignorance behaves in various steps and 23 steps are explained. It is mentioned in Tripitaka as;
“Tatta Katama Avijja? (What is Ignorance?) – Yang Annanag, Adassanag, Anabisamayo, Annubodo, Asambodo, Appatiwedo, Asangahano, Apariyogahano, Asamapekkana, Apaccaka kammang, Dummejjang, Balyang, Asampajannag, Moho, Pamoho, Sammoho, Avijja, Avijja Ogo, Avijja yogo, Avijja anusayo, Avijja pariuttanag, Avijja Langi, Moho Akusala Moolang – Ayang uccati Avijja (That what ignorance is)”
All these days you & I were aware of one of these 23. That is “MOHA”. As many books mentioned “Avijja / Avidya is Moha - Ignorance is unawareness or delusion” but when we read above 23 we can see Moha is just one step only. There are 22 more under the explanation of Ignorance. Let’s clear this one by one for a better understanding.
Yang Annanag (One without knowledge) – this is what we describe above as Lack of Knowledge in Four Noble Truth! Lack of knowledge about Suffering, lack of knowledge about Cause of Suffering, lack of knowledge about cease of suffering is possible, lack of knowledge about the path which ceases suffering are the four noble truths. This is the common to everyone and the rest of the 22 steps are levels of ignorance which increased to the higher levels. When we have lack of Knowledge about Four Noble Truths through above readings you know how to gain the knowledge through understanding. When the knowledge is with you the Samma Nana (Correct Wisdom) will be with you to give the Samma Vimukthi (Correct Freedom). When someone gets this level that person complete the level of knowledge and gain the full wisdom which we call Arihat… or attain Nirvana. Till we attain nirvana the Ignorance’s this level will be us. Dharma shows that Desire for the Forms, Desire for the Non Forms, Pride, Arrogant and Ignorance will be vanished when attain Nirvana. So there shows the Ignorance as what we discuss here. That is not the Moha which fully unawareness or delusion. That unawareness (Moha) which is cause to guide one into the four hells is vanishing when one become level of Sowan. Then the balance ignorance which cause to existence of the world of Desire is left and when one achieve the level of Anagami that also vanishing. Then the balance ignorance is creating the Desire for Form worlds and non form worlds which vanish with the level of Arihat which is Nirvana. “Avijjayattewa asesa virago nirodo Sankara niroda - Ending Avijja cause to end Sankara” is applicable to this level and one is free.
If anyone doesn’t have the knowledge of Four Noble Truth is NOT a SIN! The results you gain through is the existence of somewhere in this life circle. Lake of knowledge about Four Noble Truth will cause to born you in Heaven, Bamba world (Higher than heaven) or even in hell or as an animal. When someone doesn’t have the knowledge about four noble truths that person will think the existence is good and somehow he or she is stuck to this existence knowingly or unknowingly. That is again only a vision of that person. That is not the Tanha (Craving). The cause to that vision is ignorance. I believe you are cleared with this level of Ignorance.
Adassanag (No thinking) – a person who become to this level of Ignorance has no thinking to realize the truth.
Anabisamayo (No firmness) – a person who become to this level of ignorance has no firmness of Dharma inside his or her mind. Dharma is not resided in that mind.
Annubodo (No Understanding) – a person who become to this level of ignorance has no understanding about Dharma.
Asambodo (No idea) – a person who become to this level of ignorance has no idea of Dharma.
Appatiwedo (No realization) – a person who become to this level of ignorance has no realization of Dharma.
Asangahano (No aware) – in this level a person can’t keep the dharma facts what he or she listen. They forget easily.
Apariyogahano (No gimmick) – a person who become to this level of ignorance have no gimmick to grab the best out of Dharma.
Asamapekkana (No Concentration) – when in this level the person can’t concentrate on Dharma facts. He or she simply can’t be with Dharma.
Apaccaka kammang (No manifest) – in this level the person can’t even closer to Dharma to understand it or efficacious it. The person will become totally out of the Dharma where he or she can’t even recognize what is the Path… they can’t understand what says in Dharma even they listen to the sermons. Ignorance makes them so spoiled in this level.
Dummejjang (Cover with stains) - a person who spoiled to the above mentioned level has now begins to walk to the destruction. Do you know the tree glue? When glue begun to produce by the tree it has begun to decay too and lose the strength to stand right. And also this level can described as corrode. When this level of ignorance rise in a person that person is nowhere in the trust worthy zone. This level is described as “Aganthuka Upakilittena Upakilittang – Outsider stains starts to spoil the mind”. And the downward level of Ignorance starts from this level.
Balyang (immature) – “Ando Balo Prutagjano – Worldly people are immature & blind” is this level of persons. Being immature is the quality of a worldly person. Now you should understand this clearly. Because nowadays many say we are worldly persons so we do many wrong things not able to enter to the path of Dharma. But actually if you at least have the respect to the Lord Samma Sambuddha and his teaching or at least the person have respect to offer a flower he or she already become disciples who sooner or later will enter to the path and be free from suffering. Worldly person is who have not a even a Tiny Sadda (Faith), Tiny Wirya (effort), Tiny Sati (Consciousness), Tiny Samadi (Concentrate) and Tiny Panna (Wisdom). If you are calling YOU as a Worldly person think moments are you too like this… A person doesn’t have a tiny faith or respect for the Buddha, Dharma & Sangha. A person doesn’t have a tiny conscious on Dharma. A person doesn’t have a tiny discipline through Dharma. A person doesn’t have a tiny knowledge about Dharma. A person doesn’t have a tiny wisdom to realize the truth. A person doesn’t get rid of a tiny attachment.
So please understand clearly that you are not a blind immature worldly person who doesn’t even have a clue about Dharma. You are a Arya person and keep that mind and be hurry to complete your path.
Asampajannag (No understanding about what is doing) – the person who come to this level of Ignorance can’t recognize the things which help to Nirvana & which not helpful for Nirvana. He or she is clueless about Dharma.
Moho (Unawarenss / Delusion) – the person has covered in this level. He or she spoiled to the maximum in this level. This is a cheapest level of Ignorance. The person does many evil things when he comes to this level.
Pamoho (Increased Delusion) – in this level the unawareness arise highly and it is more powerful in this level.
Sammoho (Attached with Unawareness) – In this level the person attached to the unawareness so highly.
Avijja (Ignorance) – this is the level which identify as Ignorance is Unawareness which “Anijja is Moha”. When we explain ignorance there we meet this level which world recognize as ignorance. The person in this level reacts so ignorantly and as it is spoiled than the Unawareness (Moha) level this is recognized as Avijja is Moha.
Avijja Ogo (Where putrid) – it is like being in a putrid which is difficult to come to the better side as it is too much rotten.
Avijja yogo (Fixed to putrid) – in this level the person is as dirty as he fixes & attach with the putrid level.
Avijja anusayo (Where Ignorance sleep) – in this level of the person’s defilements are sleeping and wake up whenever they get the wake up call.
Avijja pariuttanag (Wake up call) – in this level of the person gives the wake up call to defilements who sleeps inside and they are awake.
Avijja Langi (Awake and stay) – those defilement which got awake stay awake & be ready in this level
Moho Akusala Moolang (Unawareness begins to create the Defilements) – this is the level person start to do things according to the unawareness feelings. The person starts to do defilement in action.
So now you know how ignorance can behave inside us.
Through this explanation now we know how many levels are helping to do the defilements and how many levels are there to do pure virtuous things even with the ignorance. The basic Cause & Effect theory doesn’t share all these information which help us to get the better understanding. I guess you already understood that how the explanations of Abidharma Pitaka are helping to us to get this knowledge. Cause & Effect theory is NOT to forget by thinking difficulties. If someone is not good for Mathematics that means that person doesn’t understood the basic theory. Once that person able to understand the basic theory he will be able to do miracle with mathematics but he give at the beginning he or she will not lean mathematics at all. So all we have to understand the basic theory and the puzzles will be solved then.
If I described Ignorance for some more extent… we should understand that if we do not delay by being attached to this world highly we can gain the ambrosia / immorality which are another name for Nirvana. When we delay by attaching to the world this peacefulness is getting away from us. That is how carnal happen to exist and when we attached to the carnal worldly things so much the craving happen to exists.
Because of the attachment to these worldly things we happen to fight & struggle against the nature with the intention to protect them. And we happen to meet the next connection as Hatred through the craving of being I & Mine.
Lack of Knowledge brings these things to us. The lack of knowledge of Four Noble Truth cause to make us think that this world is a better place to attach & live. So we covered with an illusion and the truth will be hidden for us. We cry… we struggle… we scream… we are in stress and that is how unawareness exists.
In dharma the desirable things are compared to the things we drink. The drink call desire is not helping much to fulfill the thirst of comfort. Those things are adding to the past in each instant we try to do it. But we never give up and keep trying. Then the spoiled stains were left. That is how world happen to exist. So these worldly attachments… craving… guiding us to the stress… suffering… discomfort. So Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind are included to this world, craving & worldly things and more understanding will be gain through the knowledge of dharma in future. The intention to grab perception through these 6 senses are spoiled by unawareness and create the Desire, Hatred & Ignorance and the stress… suffering… discomfort. Forms, Sounds, Tastes, Fragrance, Feelings, Thoughts we grab through the 6 senses are outer things and most of the time we are with the vision of that these are valuable… these are good because we don’t have the knowledge to see the reality through the illusion which is ignorance.
I like to describe the word “Sang” here as remembering it all the time will help you to understand many dharma facts in future. Sang gives the meaning adding together. Ignorance make us to adding together with those Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind and Forms, Sounds, Tastes, Fragrance, Feelings, Thoughts. When we adding them together with the vision of that they are good and valuable and productive things we create the life circle / existence which we all know as the word “Sansara”.
Now let me explain how Ignorance behaves in the Paticca Samuppada.
We discuss in the article of Introduction to Paticca Samuppada how Ignorance causes to do sinful actions & good virtuous actions. The explanation I mentioned as few topics only. As you already understood how Ignorance behave in certain levels for the good side & the bad side this will be clearer for you now. The ignorance begins with the lack of knowledge about Four Noble Truths and it increases its levels till one’s do defilements.
Avijja paccaya Sankara (Ignorance cause to do actions through Body, Words, Mind with the feeling of precious) – this is divided to 2 main facts.
1. Kusala Moola Paccaya Sankara (Purity or Virtuous Cause to do actions)
2. Akusala Moola Paccaya Sankara (Defilements or impurity Cause to do actions)
And these 2 things again divided to 3 things as
Kusala Moola Paccaya Sankara (Purity or Virtuous Cause to do actions)
Alobha paccaya Sankara (Non Desirable / Benevolence cause to do actions)
Adwesha paccaya Sankara (Non Hatred / Sympathy cause to do actions)
Amoha paccaya Sankara (Knowledge cause to do actions)
And each one of these again divided to 2 things as
Alobha paccaya Sankara (Non Desirable / Benevolence cause to do actions)
Worldly good side - Arya path to the Nirvana
Adwesha paccaya Sankara (Non Hatred / Sympathy cause to do actions)
Worldly good side - Arya path to the Nirvana
Amoha paccaya Sankara (Knowledge cause to do actions)
Worldly good side - Arya path to the Nirvana
Worldly good side – in here when Paticca Samuppada begins in a Mind with Alobha, Adwesha, Amoha the last part continue as Vedana paccaya PASADO, Pasada paccaya ADIMOKKO, Adimokka paccya BAWO, Bawa paccya Jati etc…etc… and end with “Eva metassa kewalassa dukkakhandassa samudayo hoti” which gives the normal ending again as “entire suffering begins like this”.
In here Vedana paccaya Thanha (Craving) is not there and instead Vedana paccaya PASADO is available. What is “Pasado” it is the Pleasant Mind. When we do good things with the Non Craving (Alobha), Non Hatred (Adwesha) & Awareness (Amoha) our mind brings the pleasantness instead of Craving. Then the pleasantness increased and become the peak which mentioned as Adimokka. And that cause to create a pleasant category or kind. Gods, Human, Brahmans (The one higher than the Gods not the human cast call Brahmans) are counted to these pleasant categories. As this is a part of existence it is attach to the Ignorance and explained. Because if someone do something to which effect to existence gives the idea that person is valuing the existence up to a certain level. But the Non Craving (Alobha), Non Hatred (Adwesha) & Awareness (Amoha) cause to bring the pleasant or good categories. In this place we can’t count ignorance as Unawareness (Moha) as we already know what unawareness explains.
When Non Craving (Alobha), Non Hatred (Adwesha) & Awareness (Amoha) awaken in a mind then the Craving (Lobha), Hatred (Dwesha), and Unawareness (Moha) is sleeping. When Craving (Lobha), Hatred (Dwesha), and Unawareness (Moha) awaken the Non Craving (Alobha), Non Hatred (Adwesha) & Awareness (Amoha) is sleeps. The Arya path is there to make them kill not sleep. We call it in Dharma as “Samucceda Prahana”. And also known as destroying the sleeping points… in this path we destroy Craving (Lobha), Hatred (Dwesha) & Unawareness (Moha) also the Non Craving (Alobha), Non Hatred (Adwesha) & Awareness (Amoha) step by step to be enlighten. The specialty of this Arya path is that is the only path which this is possible.
Arya path to the Nirvana is not allowing sleeping that defilement. The path destroys them.
That is why when Paticca Samuppada begins in a Mind with Alobha, Adwesha, Amoha the last part continue as Vedana paccaya PASADO, Pasada paccaya ADIMOKKO, Adimokka paccya BAWO, Bawa paccya Jati etc…etc… and end with “Eva metassa kewalassa DHAMMANAG samudayo hoti” which gives the meaning of “likewise Dharma begins”. This ending clearly says that Paticca Samuppada which starts with Kusala and do actions to the Arya Path NOT cause to begin sufferings. It is cause to become an Arya person with Dharma. In here there are 4 Categories (Jati / Birth). We can see in this birth itself as an immediate effect in this life itself. Those are Bhikku, Bhikkuni, Upasika, Upasika. These categories are not born through a mother or womb… as you see these are categories as what they do… you may think aren’t they only names to identify those personalities. But when form exists according to the Cause & Effect theory we named them to our own convinces to identify them. And without born again as one of these categories we all know that we can’t end sufferings.
Here what you should understand clearly is changing oneself with the costume is not cause to give birth to these four species. To give the birth to these four species we should complete the above process in Paticca Samuppada accordingly. You will be able to know about these things with the knowledge of Dharma you learn in future.
Akusala or Defilements also cause to do actions through Body, Words & Mind. Lobha (Greed / Desire), Dwesha (Hatred) & Moha (Deep Ignorance) cause to do actions under the Akusala / Defilements. And those are also divided into 3 facts. We knew about these in the previous articles of Introduction to Paticca Samuppada.
AKusala Moola Paccaya Sankara (Defilement or Evil Cause to do actions)
Lobha paccaya Sankara (Greed / Desire cause to do actions)
Dwesha paccaya Sankara (Hatred cause to do actions)
Moha paccaya Sankara (Deep Ignorance cause to do actions)
When Lobha paccaya Sankara (Greed / Desire / Craving cause to do actions) – in here when Lobha cause to start the Paticca Samuppada in a mind it is going to end as Vedana paccaya Tanha, Tanha paccaya Upadanang, Upadana paccaya Bawo, Bawa paccaya Jati… etc… as we know Lobha is a defilement which cause to Desire, Craving etc… this is how it going to create the categories accordingly.
When beginning is with Dwesha it flows as Dwesha paccaya Sankara (Hatred cause to do actions) – in here when Dwesha cause to start the Paticca Samuppada in a mind it is going to end as Vedana paccaya PATIGANG, Patiga paccaya ADIMOKKO, Adimokka paccaya Bawa, Bawa paccaya Jati… etc… What is Patiga? Patiga is confliction. As we already know what is Adimokka is you know how the rest of this will give the effects. When Conflict is arise and when it becomes the peak it cause to gives the categories that always in hatred… conflict thoughts… and anger. You have seen such categories available in this world as many animals.
When Moha paccaya Sankara (Unawareness cause to do actions) Moha cause to start the Paticca Samuppada in a mind it is going to end as Vedana paccaya VICIKICCA, Vicikicca paccaya Adimokko, Adimokka paccaya Bawo, Bawa paccaya Jati… etc… Vicikicca gives the meaning of doubt / distrust which comes with the fear… etc. When this doubtfulness becomes the peak level and the Paticca Samuppada gives the results as the category of doubtful & fear. You have seen many animals like bunnies, deer are having these qualities.
As you see this Paticca Samuppada the Cause & Effect theory solves all the puzzles when we understand it clearly. You can see the world through this theory. And when you understand this theory you will see the world in a different way and not the way you see it all these days. You will get all the answers accordingly when you apply to this greatest theory. This is given for gain that understanding and I’ll do my best to share what I understood as a support to you all.
I believe now you are aware with what Ignorance is and its levels and how it behaves in the Cause & Effect Theory. Lord Samma Sambuddha has given 84,000 ways to follow the same Arya path. What are those 84,000 is for? It is given to understand this Ignorance. Because when you understand this ignorance clearly you will be able to catch the rest too and be free. Through this article I have written what we should know in the basic level and with the knowledge of Dharma you will be able to understand the balance through your own wisdom. It is very difficult to write everything in a small space like this. In fact Lord Samma Samubuddha only described a certain level out of what he realized & knew. And that certain level he compared to the few drop of water took into the nail from Ocean. If that few drop is vast & heavy like this we can imagine the about the balance… isn’t it? So all I know is our greatest teacher has given enough of facts to understand the Great Teacher call Dharma. Dharma was the teacher of our Lord Samma Sambuddha too. Dharma is the truth. And once you understand this Cause & Effect theory you will be able to meet the teacher of Dharma. Then you will not need my help or someone else’s help!
I attach all my blessings to this article with the intension that blessings may help you to understand each valuable fact put together in here and realize the Four Noble Truth and become your own savior!
May Samma Sambuddha Bless you!